The Bode Lab
The Bode Lab


Human Milk Oligosaccharides (HMOs) are the third most abundant component of human milk. However, we are just now beginning to understand how these complex sugars are synthesized in the mammary gland, how they impact infant and maternal immediate and long-term health and development, and how they may serve as natural templates for safe and effective therapeutics for diseases later in life.

What are HMOs?

...and how are they made? ...and why?

Research Approach

We use an interdisciplinary, collaborative approach to discover the "how" and "why" of HMOs.

Research Projects

HMOs are relevant in a wide variety of health and disease contexts - from necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants to frailty in the elderly.

Preparative Platform

We generate HMOs at highest purity for discoveries in preclinical models.

Analytical Platform

We provide rapid quantitative HMO composition analysis from less than a drop of milk.


We are embedded in one of the most powerful basic and clinical research environments in the world.


We work at the forefront of HMO research, but we can't do it alone.


We publish our work in peer-reviewed journals.

Dedicated to Research on Human Milk Oligosaccharides

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